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Our Nutrients

Nutrients are the building blocks for our day to day energy. In general it is possible to achieve a balanced diet (complete nutritional diet, meaning all macro, micronutrients and amino acids) through the foods we eat. However, availability changes, know how may be limited, stress levels are high and so we don’t always find ourselves in a to be able to stock up and replenish nutrients on a daily basis to sufficient levels. Especially vitamin B & C that are water soluble and excreted whenever we go to the bathroom, need to be replenished often to be able to stock up sufficient levels.  

This is where supplements come into play. The following explains in more depth what nutrients can be found in our gummies why we’ve chosen them and what happens when we experience deficiency.

Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is a type of vinegar made from smashed-up fermented apples, along with yeast and sugar . People have been using it as a home remedy for various things, like fighting off sickness or easing heartburn, for a long time.

Recent research suggests that ACV might actually be good for your health. It could help lower your blood sugar and even help with weight loss.

Most of ACV is water (about 94%), with a small amount of acetic acid (5%), a bit of carbohydrates (1%), and no fat or protein. So, it's pretty low in calories, with around 22 calories in every 100 grams. But it doesn't have many other nutrients .

 High in beneficial compounds: Apple cider vinegar is packed with something called acetic acid, which gives it that strong, sour smell and taste. This acetic acid is the key ingredient that makes apple cider vinegar good for your health. In apple cider vinegar, you'll find about 5-6% of this helpful acetic acid.

The vinegar is formed by blending apples and yeast. The yeast transforms the apple sugar into alcohol. Bacteria are then added to the mixture, where they ferment the alcohol to produce acetic acid. Vinegar contains water as well as trace amounts of other acids, vitamins, and minerals in addition to acetic acid.

In some people, apple cider vinegar may result in unpleasant digestive symptoms.
According to studies on both humans and animals, acetic acid and apple cider vinegar may increase feelings of fullness and reduce hunger, which would naturally result in a reduction in caloric intake. However, one controlled study contends that indigestion may occasionally cause a decrease in appetite and food consumption.
People that drank beverages containing 25 grammes (0.88 ounces) of apple cider vinegar reported less appetite but also noticeably more sickness, especially when the vinegar was a component of a drink with a bad taste.

Standard doses range from 1-2 teaspoons (5-10 mL) to 1-2 tablespoons (15-30 mL) combined in a big glass of water per day.

Biotin

Biotin, also known as vitamin H, is a B vitamin that helps our bodies turn food into energy. It's important for making a protein called keratin, which is what our hair, skin, and nails are made of . Biotin is especially crucial during pregnancy because it supports the growth of the baby .

People often take biotin supplements to address hair loss and improve the health of their hair, skin, and nails. While a lack of biotin can indeed lead to hair loss and skin or nail issues, the evidence for the effectiveness of biotin supplements is unclear. Some limited studies and individual cases have hinted at potential benefits, but the research methods used in these studies were not very reliable:
In this study, the types of hair conditions differed or were not included at all. Researchers have also emphasised that certain hair loss diseases, such as alopecia, might heal spontaneously without therapy, thus it is unclear whether the regrowth was primarily induced by biotin supplements.
This study did not assess the subjects' baseline biotin levels to determine whether they were adequate or insufficient. Some evidence suggests that biotin supplements may be most beneficial in persons who are deficient in the nutrient; however, there aren't enough studies that have examined biotin levels before and after supplementation to validate this conclusion.
There are currently no published research indicating that biotin supplements are advantageous for the growth of normal, healthy hair and nails.

Despite the ambiguous evidence, biotin supplements are nevertheless widely used. Between 1999 and 2016, the proportion of supplement consumers nearly tripled.

Dietary biotin can be obtained from both plant and animal sources. Biotin rich foods include:
- egg yolks
- legumes
- nuts and seeds
- liver
- sweet potatoes
- mushrooms
- bananas
- broccoli
- yeast
- avocados

There is insufficient information to determine the consequences of using large daily doses of biotin supplements.

Most people who eat a balanced diet get enough biotin from their food, so biotin deficiency is rare . But if it does happen, it can lead to skin rashes, brittle nails, and hair thinning or loss because biotin plays a role in making keratin.

A diversified and balanced diet should provide you with all of the biotin you require. Taking 0.9mg or less of biotin per day in supplements is unlikely to be harmful.

Calcium (Ca2+)

Calcium is an essential component that your body need for a variety of basic activities. Calcium serves various critical tasks, including bone formation and tooth health, muscular contraction regulation, including heartbeat regulation, and appropriate blood clotting. Calcium is required by your body to produce and maintain strong bones. Over 98% of your body's calcium is stored in your bones and teeth. Calcium is so crucial that if you don't receive enough of it in your diet, your body will take it from your skeleton and teeth and utilise it elsewhere, weakening your bones.Chamomile oil is derived from the blooms or leaves of daisy-like plants such as German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman or English chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Chamomile extracts, oils, and teas are used for their relaxing properties as a sedative, mild analgesic, and sleep drug.

They may aid in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women: Women lose bone mass after menopause due to a decrease in oestrogen. Supplements may be beneficial. Several studies have found that postmenopausal women who take calcium supplements — typically 1,000 mg per day — may decrease bone loss by 1-2%. The effect appears to be strongest among women with low calcium intakes and during the first two years of supplementation. A 2022 review of 43 research including over 7,000 people under the age of 35 discovered that calcium supplementation enhanced bone mass.

They may aid with weight loss: Low calcium consumption has been linked to a high body mass index (BMI) and a high body fat percentage in studies.
A 2013 study looked at the impact of delivering a daily 600-mg calcium supplement to overweight and obese college students who had very low calcium intakes. The researchers discovered that those who took a supplement containing 600 mg of calcium and 125 international units (IUs) of vitamin D shed more body fat on a calorie-restricted diet than those who did not.

Calcium could help reduce the risk of colon cancer: Calcium from dairy products and supplements, according to one major study, may reduce the risk of colon cancer. A 2022 meta-analysis of 37 research discovered a 6% lower risk of colorectal cancer for every 300 mg of calcium consumed daily.

Calcium sources include:
- dairy products such as milk and cheese
- Green leafy vegetables, such as curly kale and okra, but not spinach (while spinach contains a lot of calcium, the body can't digest it completely).
- Soya drinks with calcium added
- bread and anything produced with fortified wheat
- fish with bones - such as sardines and pilchards .

Ingesting more than 1,500 mg/day of calcium may lead to stomach pain and diarrhoea.

Calcium shortage can lead to osteoporosis, which is characterised by weak bones and an increased risk of falling . Although vitamin D insufficiency is more common in these conditions, calcium shortage can induce rickets in children and other bone abnormalities in adults.

Adults aged 19 to 64 require 700mg of calcium every day. Your everyday diet should provide you with all of the calcium you require.

Chamomile

Chamomile oil is derived from the blooms or leaves of daisy-like plants such as German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman or English chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Chamomile extracts, oils, and teas are used for their relaxing properties as a sedative, mild analgesic, and sleep drug.

Enhances sleep quality: Chamomile has several special qualities that may help you sleep better. This contains apigenin, an antioxidant that attaches to specific receptors in your brain, promoting sleepiness and decreasing insomnia, or the chronic inability to sleep .

Enhances digestive health: There is limited evidence that chamomile can help with digestion by lowering the risk of some gastrointestinal diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that chamomile extract has the capacity to prevent mice from diarrhoea. This is because it has anti-inflammatory effects.

Matricaria chamomilla and Chamaemelum nobile are two of the species that are frequently used to create herbal infusions for tea or supplements.

When used in the proportions frequently found in teas, chamomile is most likely harmless. It may be safe to take orally for therapeutic purposes in the short term. It is unknown whether applying chamomile on the skin for therapeutic purposes is safe over time.
The most common side effects include nausea, dizziness, and allergic responses. People who consumed or came into touch with chamomile products experienced rare incidences of anaphylaxis (a potentially fatal allergic reaction). People who are allergic to related plants such as ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, or daisies are more prone to have allergic reactions to chamomile.

There is no standard dosage recommendation of chamomile.

Choline

Chromium is a trace mineral that helps your body break down protein, carbohydrates, and lipids. Since it is not a necessary mineral, being lacking in it will not cause any health problems. However, including chromium in your diet is still a smart idea.

Lowers triglycerides, boosts HDL, and enhances insulin sensitivity: Chromium is a mineral that, based on research, seems to do a couple of good things for your health. It might lower the levels of triglycerides (a type of fat in your blood) and boost HDL (the good cholesterol). It could also make insulin work better in people with type 2 diabetes . This means it helps your cells respond better to insulin, a hormone that's important for controlling your blood sugar .

Foods high in Chromium include:
- grape juice
- whole wheat flour
- baker's yeast
- orange juice
- beef
- tomato juice
- apples
- green beans

Large doses of chromium can cause serious respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal damage, as well as death. Chromium may cause occupational asthma in people who are allergic to it.

A lack of chromium has been linked to a number of metabolic and neurological problems, including insulin intolerance.

To determine a Recommended Dietary Allowance for chromium, insufficient information is available.
Men aged 19 to 50 should take 35 micrograms of AI (Adequate Intake) daily, while women aged 19 to 50 should take 25 micrograms. Older men and women need slightly less, at 30 and 20 micrograms per day, respectively. The AI is 30 and 45 micrograms per day for lactation and pregnancy, respectively.

Chromium

Green tea is a type of tea that's not processed as much as other kinds. Because of this, it has the most antioxidants and helpful compounds . One of these compounds is called catechin, which is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells from harm and provides health benefits. The most famous catechin in green tea is called epigallocatechin-3-gallate, or EGCG for short. Research suggests that EGCG might improve your health and help with certain health issues.

Green tea catechins, according to animal studies, can help protect against certain diseases . Some research suggests that green tea can slow down the growth of liver cancer cells, lower cholesterol levels in rats with liver problems, and prevent liver damage. It has also shown promise in preventing breast cancer after it has started. Green tea, its extract, and its individual components have been found to be effective in preventing damage caused by oxidative stress and certain brain disorders . Drinking green tea has even been linked to a lower risk of several types of cancer, including lung, colon, esophagus, mouth, stomach, small intestine, kidney, pancreas, and breast cancer.

The camellia sinensis plant is used to make all varieties of tea, including your typical cup of builder's tea. The emerald green tint that results from brewing these uncooked, unfermented leaves gives green tea its name.

Overdoes (more than 300 mg caffeine or 5 cups of tea as a beverage) can cause agitation, tremor, and increased reflex excitability. Vomiting and stomach spasms are the initial symptoms of poisoning. It is claimed that sufficient testing for reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity were not carried out. Caffeine-containing preparations are said to diminish the effects of sedatives and exacerbate the negative effects of sympathomimetic medications.

Green tea in moderate amounts (approximately 8 cups per day) is probably safe for most people. Green tea extract may be safe when taken for up to two years or used as a mouthwash for a brief period of time. Drinking more than 8 cups of green tea each day may be harmful.

Green Tea

Green tea is a type of tea that's not processed as much as other kinds. Because of this, it has the most antioxidants and helpful compounds . One of these compounds is called catechin, which is an antioxidant that helps protect your cells from harm and provides health benefits. The most famous catechin in green tea is called epigallocatechin-3-gallate, or EGCG for short. Research suggests that EGCG might improve your health and help with certain health issues.

Green tea catechins, according to animal studies, can help protect against certain diseases . Some research suggests that green tea can slow down the growth of liver cancer cells, lower cholesterol levels in rats with liver problems, and prevent liver damage. It has also shown promise in preventing breast cancer after it has started. Green tea, its extract, and its individual components have been found to be effective in preventing damage caused by oxidative stress and certain brain disorders . Drinking green tea has even been linked to a lower risk of several types of cancer, including lung, colon, esophagus, mouth, stomach, small intestine, kidney, pancreas, and breast cancer.

The camellia sinensis plant is used to make all varieties of tea, including your typical cup of builder's tea. The emerald green tint that results from brewing these uncooked, unfermented leaves gives green tea its name.

Overdoes (more than 300 mg caffeine or 5 cups of tea as a beverage) can cause agitation, tremor, and increased reflex excitability. Vomiting and stomach spasms are the initial symptoms of poisoning. It is claimed that sufficient testing for reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity were not carried out. Caffeine-containing preparations are said to diminish the effects of sedatives and exacerbate the negative effects of sympathomimetic medications.

Green tea in moderate amounts (approximately 8 cups per day) is probably safe for most people. Green tea extract may be safe when taken for up to two years or used as a mouthwash for a brief period of time. Drinking more than 8 cups of green tea each day may be harmful.

Iron

Iron is a mineral that does many important things in your body, but the most important is carrying oxygen around. It does this as a part of red blood cells. For most people who are not pregnant, they need 8-18 milligrams of iron every day. If you don't get enough iron to replace what your body loses each day, you might develop a shortage. Your body uses iron to make hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that moves oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body, and myoglobin, a protein that provides oxygen to your muscles. Iron is also needed to produce certain hormones in your body. Iron's most essential contribution to health is the prevention of iron deficient anaemia and its complications.

Pregnant women: Because a woman's blood volume increases during pregnancy, she needs more iron for herself and her growing baby. A woman's risk of iron deficiency anaemia increases during pregnancy, as does her infant's risk of low birth weight, early birth, and low iron levels. A lack of iron may potentially damage her infant's brain development. Pregnant women should consult with their doctor and, if necessary, take an iron supplement.

Good sources of iron include:
- liver (but avoid this during pregnancy)
- red meat
- beans, such as red kidney beans, edamame beans and chickpeas
- nuts
- dried fruit – such as dried apricots
- fortified breakfast cereals
- soy bean flour

High dosages of iron (more than 20mg) can cause the following side effects: stomach ache, constipation, feeling nauseous and being sick.
Extremely high iron doses can be lethal, especially if taken by children, thus keep iron supplements out of reach of children at all times.

Severe iron deficiency anaemia may raise your chance of having heart or lung difficulties, such as an unusually fast heartbeat (tachycardia) or heart failure, which occurs when your heart is unable to pump enough blood around your body at the appropriate pressure.

Iron requirements for men aged 19 and up are 8.7mg per day and 14.8mg per day for women aged 19 to 49.
8.7mg per day for women aged 50 and up.
Women over the age of 50 may require the same amount of iron as women aged 19 to 49. Women who shed a lot of blood throughout their monthly cycle (heavy periods) are more likely to develop iron deficiency anaemia and may require iron supplements.

Lemon Balm

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a lemon-scented herb that is related to mint. Although the herb is native to Europe, North Africa, and West Asia, it is now grown all over the world. Furthermore, it has historically been used to promote mood and cognitive performance, but the possibilities are endless. Lemon balm is claimed to relieve tension, help you relax, and increase your mood.

It has the potential to alleviate stress: According to a 2004 study, ingesting lemon balm reduced the negative mood consequences of laboratory-induced psychological stress. Participants who took lemon balm reported an increase in serenity and a decrease in attentiveness.

It can assist to alleviate anxiety: Lemon balm can also help with anxiety symptoms including anxiousness and excitability. A study released in 2014 looked at the mood and cognitive impacts of diets containing lemon balm. The supplement was combined with either natural or artificial sweeteners in a beverage and yoghurt. Both groups' participants reported positive impacts on many elements of mood, including lower levels of anxiety. (3)

. It may improve cognitive function: The same 2014 study investigated the effects of lemon balm on cognitive performance. Cognitive tasks comprising memory, maths, and focus were assigned to participants. The findings of these computerised tests indicate that participants who consumed lemon balm outperformed those who did not.

It may aid in the treatment of cold sores: At the first indication of a cold sore, apply lemon balm topically. In a 1999 trial, participants applied a lemon balm or placebo cream to the afflicted area four times each day for five days. The researchers discovered that people who used the lemon balm ointment had fewer symptoms and healed faster than those who did not.

 It may help to reduce menstrual cramps: There is additional evidence that lemon balm can be used to treat menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). A 2015 study looked at the effect of lemon balm on cramp intensity in 100 high school students. For three menstrual cycles, the girls were given either lemon balm essence or a placebo. PMS symptoms were assessed before, one, two, and three months after the study. The lemon balm group reported a considerable improvement in symptoms. Additional research is required to corroborate these findings.

Lemon Balm is also known as Melissa officinalis and is a member of the mint family.

Overdoes of lemon balm tea and supplements are unlikely to result in serious side effects. If not diluted, lemon balm essential oil is extremely poisonous and can cause sleepiness, muscle weakness, tremor, seizure, hallucinations, and breathing issues. Overdose can be managed symptomatically and supportively.

When taken orally, lemon balm is probably safe in the amounts found in foods. Lemon balm supplements may be safe if used at doses of up to 500 mg daily for up to 6 months. The most common side effects include increased hunger, nausea, dizziness, and wheezing.

L-Carnitine

L-carnitine is like a helper molecule in your body. It's an amino acid that your body makes on its own, and it's really important for making energy because it helps move fatty acids into the powerhouses of your cells called mitochondria. You can also get a small amount of L-carnitine from foods like meat and dairy. However, if you're a vegan or have certain genetic conditions, it might be hard for your body to make or get enough L-carnitine. So, for some people, L-carnitine becomes something they need at times. Most of your L-carnitine is stored in your muscles, with just a little bit in your blood, liver, heart, and kidneys.

Helps weight loss: L-carnitine is occasionally used as a weight loss supplement because it helps transfer more fatty acids into your cells to be used for energy. A meta-analysis of 37 research discovered that L-carnitine supplementation significantly lowered body weight, BMI, and fat mass. It had no effect on belly fat or body fat percentage, though.

Improves brain function: L-carnitine has been shown to improve brain function. According to certain studies, the acetyl form, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), may help prevent age-related brain decline and improve learning outcomes. For instance, a 2018 study found that taking 1,500 milligrammes (mg) of ALCAR daily for 28 weeks increased brain function in persons with dementia.

Carnitine is found in animal products, particularly red meat. Carnitine is found in poultry, fish, and dairy products, but it is in trace levels in vegetables, fruits, and grains.

There is no defined tolerated upper consumption amount for carnitine. Carnitine supplement levels of about 3 g/day, on the other hand, might produce nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, and a fishy body odour.

There are two types of carnitine deficient states. Primary carnitine deficit is a hereditary condition of the cellular carnitine transporter system that results in a carnitine deficiency within cells. Primary carnitine insufficiency usually manifests itself during childhood or infancy. In newborns, it can cause epilepsy and encephalopathy; in teenagers and young adults, it can cause seizures, irregular heartbeats, and breathing issues; and in the elderly, it can cause myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, or sudden death. Although some persons with primary carnitine deficiency do not have symptoms, everyone who is affected is at a higher risk of heart failure, liver problems, and coma.

Secondary carnitine deficiency is caused by illnesses that diminish endogenous carnitine synthesis or increase its excretion, such as chronic renal failure, or by continuous use of pivalate-containing medicines, which reduce carnitine absorption or increase its excretion . Secondary carnitine deficiency symptoms include hypoglycemia, hypoketonemia (low level of ketones in the blood), dicarboxylic aciduria (increased concentrations of dicarboxylic acids in the urine), hyperuricemia (excess uric acid in the blood), muscle weakness, myoglobinuria (excess myoglobin in the urine), cardiomyopathy, and sudden death .

The body requires roughly 15 mg of carnitine per day from food sources and endogenous production.

L-Tyrosine

It has the potential to increase mental performance in stressful settings. Stress can impair your cognition, memory, attention, and knowledge by lowering neurotransmitters. Tyrosine significantly improved working memory throughout a mentally demanding activity in one trial of 22 women when compared to a placebo. Working memory is essential for concentration and following instructions. Sleep deprivation has been demonstrated to benefit from tyrosine supplementation. A single dose of it allowed participants who had lost a night's sleep to stay awake for three hours longer than they would have otherwise. Furthermore, two studies found that tyrosine supplementation can reverse mental deterioration and increase cognition in short-term, stressful, or intellectually demanding settings.

Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency (THD) is an uncommon hereditary condition with a wide range of symptoms. These symptoms can differ greatly across people who are affected, and even between members of the same family. Common symptoms include dystonia and an uncoordinated walking style (abnormal gait).

It can assist to alleviate anxiety: Lemon balm can also help with anxiety symptoms including anxiousness and excitability. A study released in 2014 looked at the mood and cognitive impacts of diets containing lemon balm. The supplement was combined with either natural or artificial sweeteners in a beverage and yoghurt. Both groups' participants reported positive impacts on many elements of mood, including lower levels of anxiety. (3)

. It may improve cognitive function: The same 2014 study investigated the effects of lemon balm on cognitive performance. Cognitive tasks comprising memory, maths, and focus were assigned to participants. The findings of these computerised tests indicate that participants who consumed lemon balm outperformed those who did not.

It may aid in the treatment of cold sores: At the first indication of a cold sore, apply lemon balm topically. In a 1999 trial, participants applied a lemon balm or placebo cream to the afflicted area four times each day for five days. The researchers discovered that people who used the lemon balm ointment had fewer symptoms and healed faster than those who did not.

 It may help to reduce menstrual cramps: There is additional evidence that lemon balm can be used to treat menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). A 2015 study looked at the effect of lemon balm on cramp intensity in 100 high school students. For three menstrual cycles, the girls were given either lemon balm essence or a placebo. PMS symptoms were assessed before, one, two, and three months after the study. The lemon balm group reported a considerable improvement in symptoms. Additional research is required to corroborate these findings.

Because tyrosine is an amino acid, it's no surprise that it's present in protein-rich foods like these:
- sesame seeds
- cheese
- soybeans
- meat and poultry
- fish
- nuts

When the plasma level is 10 times higher than that observed in clinical studies with a tyrosine dosage of 150 mg/kg given to people, patients with inherited tyrosinemia or persistent hypertyrosinemia may experience skin and ocular problems.

Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency (THD) is an uncommon hereditary condition with a wide range of symptoms. These symptoms can differ greatly across people who are affected, and even between members of the same family. Common symptoms include dystonia and an uncoordinated walking style (abnormal gait).

Only a few clinical trials have used 100 to 150 mg/kg each day. Manufacturers typically recommend 500 to 1,500 mg/day, with no dosages above 12 g/day recommended.

Magnesium(Mg2+)

Magnesium is found naturally in a number of meals, as a supplement, and as a component in antacids and laxatives. The mineral aids more than 300 enzymes in carrying out numerous chemical reactions in the body, including as protein and bone formation, as well as blood sugar, blood pressure, muscle and neuron function. Magnesium also functions as an electrical conductor, contracting muscles and causing the heart to beat steadily.

Bone Health: Magnesium is a component of bone; in fact, bone stores 60% of the body's magnesium. It also regulates calcium levels by regulating the activity of bone-building cells and the parathyroid hormone. Men and women with higher magnesium diets have better bone mineral density, according to population research. A Women's Health Initiative cohort study of 73,684 postmenopausal women discovered that a lower magnesium intake was associated with poorer hip and total body bone mineral density, while the authors noted that their findings did not translate into an increased risk of fractures.

Migraines: Clinical investigations have indicated low magnesium levels in persons suffering from migraine headaches, thus magnesium is occasionally provided as a supplemental treatment. Magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide supplements (approximately 500 mg/day) given for up to 3 months were proven to be migraine-protective in randomised double-blind controlled trials.

Depression: Magnesium helps with brain circuits that, if not working properly, are thought to lead to mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. Several observational studies have found a relationship between low magnesium levels and depression. A small number of randomised clinical trials, however, have failed to produce consistent evidence that magnesium supplementation is an effective treatment for depression. The placebo and antidepressant drug control groups in these trials had similar results as the magnesium supplement treatment group.

Magnesium is found in a wide variety of foods, including:
- spinach
- nuts
- wholemeal bread - Almonds, peanuts, cashews
- Pumpkin seeds
- Peanut butter
- Beans (black, kidney)
- Soybeans, soymilk
- Cooked spinach, Swiss chard
- White potato with skin
- Brown rice
- Oatmeal (instant, whole oats)
- Salmon
- Beef
- Poultry
- Banana
- Raisins
- Dark chocolate (at least 70%)

Taking large amounts of magnesium (more than 400mg) in a short period of time can cause diarrhoea. There is insufficient data to speculate on the long-term implications of ingesting high dosages of magnesium.

Although magnesium is found naturally in a range of meals and some fortified foods, some study suggests that magnesium levels in soils may be lower than in previous years, and food processing can diminish magnesium concentration in plant foods containing the mineral. A modest to moderate magnesium deficit is unlikely to cause visible symptoms. When magnesium stocks are low, the body helps to preserve them by decreasing the quantity discharged in urine and absorbing more magnesium in the gut.

The amount of magnesium you need is:
300mg a day for men (19 to 64 years)
270mg a day for women (19 to 64 years)

Pan Ginseng

Ginseng is a powerful antioxidant-rich herb. According to research, it may be beneficial to brain health, immunological function, blood sugar regulation, and other areas. Fresh ginseng is gathered before the age of four, while white ginseng is harvested between the ages of four and six, and red ginseng is harvested after the age of six or older. The most common types of this herb are American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng). The concentration of active components and the effects on the body of American and Asian ginseng differ. According to some older study, American ginseng has a soothing effect, whilst Asian ginseng has an energetic effect. Ginseng contains two important substances: ginsenosides and gintonin. These substances work together to produce health benefits

Ginseng has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
In vitro studies have indicated that ginseng extracts and ginsenoside chemicals can prevent oxidative damage to cells, which can contribute to chronic illness.

Ginseng may aid to boost brain functions such as memory, behaviour, and mood. In one study of 6,422 older persons, consistent ginseng ingestion for at least 5 years was related with enhanced cognitive performance later in life.

According to one study, ginseng may also assist relieve stress and may be beneficial for depression and anxiety.

According to one review, ginseng has significant anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities and may improve immune system performance.

Ginseng may help reduce the risk of certain tumours.
Ginsenosides, which are found in this herb, have been proved to be beneficial. The cell cycle is the regular process through which cells develop and divide. Ginsenosides may help this cycle by preventing aberrant cell development and production.

Ginseng has been demonstrated to aid with fatigue relief and energy levels. Several animal studies have connected various ginseng components, such as polysaccharides and oligopeptides, to decreased oxidative stress and increased energy synthesis in cells, which may aid in fatigue reduction.

Ginseng appears to help persons with and without diabetes control their blood sugar levels. American and Asian ginseng have been found to improve pancreatic cell function, increase insulin synthesis, and improve blood sugar uptake in tissues.

Only the genus Panax has plants that are ginseng. Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng, Panax notoginseng, South China ginseng, Panax pseudoginseng, Himalayan ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, American ginseng, Panax trifolius, and Panax vietnamensis, often known as Vietnamese ginseng, are among the species that are grown commercially.

Panax ginseng is probably safe to use for up to 6 months. When consumed for longer than 6 months, Panax ginseng may be dangerous. It may have hormone-like actions that could be hazardous if used for an extended period of time. The most prevalent side effect is insomnia. Severe rash, liver damage, and severe allergic reactions have been recorded as uncommon side effects.

Panax Ginseng is often taken in doses ranging from 200 to 400mg daily for general 'preventative' medication, while some research on the inclusion of Panax Ginseng in a multivitamin suggests amounts as low as 40mg may be bioactive. The 400mg dose appears to provide the greatest cognitive improvement.

Potassium

Potassium is a mineral that is required by all tissues in the body. It's called an electrolyte because it has a little electrical charge that stimulates numerous cell and nerve processes. Potassium can be found naturally in many foods as well as as a supplement. Its primary function in the body is to assist maintain proper levels of fluid inside your cells, as well as to help muscles contract and maintain normal blood pressure. Cells contain around 98% of the potassium in your body. 80% of this is present in muscle cells, with the remaining 20% located in bones, liver, and red blood cells. When an electrolyte dissolves in water, it forms positive or negative ions with the ability to conduct electricity. Potassium ions are positively charged. This electricity is used by your body to control a range of functions, including fluid balance, nerve transmissions, and muscle contractions.

Potassium Is Beneficial to the Nervous System: The nervous system communicates between your brain and your body. These messages are sent as nerve impulses and assist regulate muscle contractions, heartbeat, reflexes, and a variety of other physiological activities .
Surprisingly, nerve impulses are produced by sodium ions entering cells and potassium ions exiting cells. The passage of ions alters the voltage of the cell, resulting in the activation of a nerve impulse .
Unfortunately, a decrease in potassium levels in the blood can impair the body's ability to create a nerve impulse .

Could Aid in Blood Pressure Reduction: A potassium-rich diet may lower blood pressure by assisting the body in excreting excess sodium . High sodium levels can raise blood pressure, especially in patients who already have high blood pressure . An analysis of 33 research indicated that increasing potassium consumption by patients with high blood pressure reduced systolic blood pressure by 3.49 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by 1.96 mmHg .

It has the potential to reduce water retention: Water retention occurs when extra fluid accumulates within the body. Potassium has traditionally been used to alleviate water retention . According to research, increasing urine production and lowering salt levels can assist minimise water retention.

Could Protect Against Strokes: A potassium-rich diet may help prevent strokes, according to several studies.
An study of 33 trials including 128,644 participants revealed that people who consumed the most potassium had a 24% lower risk of stroke than those who consumed the least .
Furthermore, a meta-analysis of 11 trials involving 247,510 participants discovered that people who consumed the highest potassium had a 21% decreased risk of stroke. They also discovered that consuming a diet high in this mineral was associated with a lower risk of heart disease .

Potassium is contained in almost all foods.
Potassium-rich foods include:
Bananas, some vegetables (e.g., broccoli, parsnips, and Brussels sprouts), beans and pulses, nuts and seeds
fish, beef, chicken, and turkey

Too much potassium can induce stomach pain, nausea, and diarrhoea.

Deficiencies are most common when the body abruptly loses too much potassium. This can happen if you have prolonged vomiting, diarrhoea, or if you've lost a lot of water .

Adults aged 19 to 64 require 3,500mg of potassium each day. Your everyday diet should provide you with all of the potassium you require.

Phosphorus (PO43)

Phosphorus is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and can also be obtained as a supplement. It serves several functions in the body: it is an important component of bones, teeth, and cell membranes, as well as it aids in the activation of enzymes and maintains blood pH within a normal range. Phosphorus maintains the appropriate operation of nerves and muscles, including the heart, and is also a component of our genes, as it is found in DNA, RNA, and ATP, the body's primary energy source.

Because it impacts so many various systems in the body, phosphorus has numerous health benefits. Phosphorus benefits include: maintaining bone and tooth strength, assisting muscle contraction, assisting muscle recovery after exercise, filtering and removing waste from the kidneys, promoting healthy nerve conduction throughout the body, making DNA and RNA, and managing the body's energy usage and storage.

Phosphorus can be found in a variety of foods, including dairy products, meats and poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, legumes, vegetables, and grains.

In healthy persons, high phosphorus consumption rarely have negative consequences. Although some studies have identified links between high phosphorus intakes (1,000 mg/day or above) and adverse cardiovascular, kidney, and bone effects, as well as an increased risk of death , others have found no link .

Phosphorus insufficiency (hypophosphatemia) is uncommon and nearly never results from inadequate dietary consumption. Anorexia, anaemia, proximal muscle weakness, skeletal consequences (bone soreness, rickets, and osteomalacia), increased infection risk, paresthesias, ataxia, and disorientation are all possible side effects of hypophosphatemia. Hypophosphatemia is most commonly caused by medical diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, renal tubule abnormalities, and diabetic ketoacidosis.

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adult males and women aged 19 and above is 700 mg per day. Phosphorus requirements are the same during pregnancy and lactation, at 700 mg per day.

Saffron

Saffron is hand picked from the Crocus sativus flower, also known as the saffron crocus. The term "saffron" refers to the stigma, which are thread-like structures on the flower. While the history of saffron is still questioned, it most likely originated in Iran. It was revered for its medicinal powers there. People ate saffron to improve their libido, mood, and memory.

Cancer-fighting qualities are possible: Saffron contains a lot of antioxidants, which help to neutralise free radicals. Chronic disorders such as cancer have been linked to free radical damage. Saffron and its constituents have been found in laboratory experiments to selectively kill or suppress colon cancer cells while leaving healthy cells untouched. This effect is also observed in skin, bone marrow, prostate, lung, breast, cervix, and other cancer cells. Crocin, the major antioxidant in saffron, has also been found in test tubes to make cancer cells more responsive to chemotherapy medicines.

PMS symptoms may be alleviated: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms that occur prior to the commencement of a menstrual cycle.
Saffron has been shown in studies to help relieve PMS symptoms. Taking 30 mg of saffron daily was more helpful than a placebo in treating PMS symptoms such as irritability, headaches, cravings, and pain in women aged 20 to 45. Another study discovered that simply smelling saffron for 20 minutes reduced PMS symptoms such as anxiety and lowered levels of the stress hormone cortisol, which in turn reduced headaches, cravings, and pain.

May suppress appetite and aid in weight loss: Snacking is a typical practise that can lead to weight gain. According to studies, saffron may help you avoid eating by suppressing your appetite. Women using saffron pills felt much more full, snacked less frequently, and lost significantly more weight than women in the placebo group in an 8-week trial. Another 8-week trial found that taking a saffron extract supplement significantly reduced hunger, BMI, waist circumference, and total fat mass.

Crocus sativus, also referred to as the saffron crocus, is the flower from which saffron is manually collected. The stigma, which are the thread-like structures on the flower, are referred to as "saffron". Iran is where saffron is most likely to have its roots, though this is still up for debate.

Saffron is frequently used in cooking as a spice or food colouring. When used as medicine, saffron may be safe in quantities up to 100 mg per day for a maximum of 26 weeks. Drowsiness, gastrointestinal issues, and nausea or vomiting are a few typical adverse effects. Additionally conceivable are allergic responses.
Saffron in excessive doses taken orally may be harmful. 5 grammes or more of a high dose can poison someone. Death may result from doses of 12 to 20 grammes.

People can safely consume up to 1.5 grammes of saffron per day as a dietary supplement. However, it has been demonstrated that just 30 mg of saffron daily is sufficient to receive its health benefits. High dosages of 5 grammes or more, on the other hand, can have hazardous effects. High doses should be avoided by pregnant women as they may result in miscarriage.

Selenium

Selenium is a trace mineral, which implies that the body only requires a trace amount of it. It can be found in foods or as a supplement. Selenium is a necessary component of several enzymes and proteins known as selenoproteins, which help to create DNA and protect cells from damage and viruses; these proteins are also involved in reproduction and thyroid hormone metabolism. The majority of selenium in the body is kept in muscle tissue, but the thyroid gland has the highest concentration due to several selenoproteins that aid in thyroid function.

Selenium may aid in the prevention of some malignancies. This is due to selenium's ability to minimise DNA damage and oxidative stress, enhance your immune system, and kill cancer cells. A comprehensive review of 69 studies including over 350,000 people discovered that having a high blood selenium level was linked to a lower risk of several types of cancer, including breast, lung, colon, and prostate cancer.

Low selenium levels have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, therefore a selenium-rich diet may help keep your heart healthy. A 50% rise in blood selenium levels was associated with a 24% reduction in the risk of heart disease in a meta-analysis of 25 observational studies.

Selenium is necessary for the correct operation of your thyroid gland. Thyroid tissue, in fact, contains more selenium than any other organ in the human body.This potent mineral protects the thyroid from oxidative damage and is required for the generation of thyroid hormones. A functioning thyroid gland is essential because it affects metabolism and growth and development.

Good sources of selenium include:
- Brazil nuts
- fish
- meat
- eggs

Too much selenium causes selenosis, a disorder that can result in hair and nail loss in its mildest form.

Selenium deficiency has also been linked to problems with human growth and reproduction. Moderate deficit contributes to myodegenerative disorders such muscular weakening. Low selenium levels have been linked to depression, anxiety, and confusion.

The amount of selenium required is as follows:

75g per day for men aged 19 to 64 years
60g per day for women aged 19 to 64 years
You should be able to receive all of the selenium you need from your regular diet if you eat meat, fish, or nuts.

Sodium (Na+) Chloride (CI) (NaCI)

Sodium chloride is also known as salt. It is one of the most prevalent minerals on the planet and is required by many plants and animals, including humans. Salt is an inorganic compound, which means it is not derived from biological organisms. It is formed when the elements Na (sodium) and Cl (chloride) combine to form white, crystalline cubes.
Your body requires salt to function properly, but too little or too much salt can be detrimental to your health.

Numerous vital bodily processes, such as fluid balance, neuron health, nutrient absorption, and muscle function, depend on sodium.

Although salt occurs naturally at low quantities in all foods, some salt is added to many processed goods, including:
- ready-to-eat meals
- meat products like bacon
- some cereals for breakfast
- Cheddar
- salt-added canned vegetables
- a loaf of bread
- savoury nibbles

Excess salt consumption is connected to high blood pressure, which increases your risk of major illnesses such as strokes and heart attacks.

Because salt is so frequently added to a wide range of foods and is present naturally in some foods, sodium shortage is uncommon. The term "hyponatremia" refers to abnormally low sodium levels in the blood. This mostly affects elderly people, especially those residing in nursing homes or hospitals, who take medications or have medical disorders that cause the body to lose salt, resulting in hyponatremia. Hyponatremia can also result from excessive sweating, excessive vomiting, or diarrhoea if salt is lost in these bodily fluids. Hyponatremia symptoms might include headaches, nausea, vomiting, altered mental status/confusion, lethargy, seizures, and coma.

You should limit your daily salt intake to 6g (2.4g sodium). However, the average person in the UK consumes 8g of salt (3.2g of sodium) each day, which is far more than the body requires.

Vitamin A

Though vitamin A is commonly regarded as a single nutrient, it is actually a collection of fat-soluble molecules that includes retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters. Food contains two types of vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A retinol and retinyl esters are found only in animal goods such as milk, liver, and fish, but provitamin A carotenoids are prevalent in plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, and oils. To utilise any of these forms of vitamin A, your body must convert them to the active forms of the vitamin, retinal and retinoic acid. Vitamin A is necessary for good health. It promotes cell proliferation, immunity, foetal development, and vision.

One of vitamin A's most well-known functions is its role in vision and eye health. Retinal, the active form of vitamin A, binds to the protein opsin to generate rhodopsin, a molecule required for colour and low-light vision.
It also aids in the protection and maintenance of the cornea, your eye's outermost layer, and the conjunctiva, a thin membrane that covers the surface of your eye and the inside of your eyelids. A sufficient consumption of vitamin A in the diet can protect against some eye illnesses such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Higher blood levels of beta carotene, alpha carotene, and beta cryptoxanthin have been shown in studies to reduce the risk of AMD by up to 25%.

Furthermore, vitamin A aids in the maintenance of surface tissues such as your skin, intestines, lungs, bladder, and inner ear. It promotes immune function by promoting the proliferation and distribution of T cells, which are white blood cells that defend the body against infection.

Furthermore, vitamin A promotes the health of skin cells, male and female reproductive health, and foetal development.

It may aid in the treatment of cold sores: At the first indication of a cold sore, apply lemon balm topically. In a 1999 trial, participants applied a lemon balm or placebo cream to the afflicted area four times each day for five days. The researchers discovered that people who used the lemon balm ointment had fewer symptoms and healed faster than those who did not.

 It may help to reduce menstrual cramps: There is additional evidence that lemon balm can be used to treat menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). A 2015 study looked at the effect of lemon balm on cramp intensity in 100 high school students. For three menstrual cycles, the girls were given either lemon balm essence or a placebo. PMS symptoms were assessed before, one, two, and three months after the study. The lemon balm group reported a considerable improvement in symptoms. Additional research is required to corroborate these findings.

Vitamin A is included in: -Cheese
Eggs
Oily fish
Fortified low-fat spreads
Milk and yoghurt
Liver and liver products such as liver pâté - Because this is a particularly strong source of vitamin A, eating it more than once a week may put you at danger of having too much vitamin A (if you're pregnant, avoid eating liver or liver derivatives).
You can also receive vitamin A by eating foods high in beta-carotene, which your body can convert into retinol. The colour of yellow and orange fruits and vegetables is due to beta-carotene.The following foods are high in beta-carotene:
Spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes, and red peppers are examples of yellow, red, and green (leafy) vegetables.
Mango, papaya, and apricots are examples of yellow fruits.

What happens with vitamin A toxicity?
If you consistently consume over 1,500 micrograms per day for many years, it could harm your bones as you get older. Excessive vitamin A intake can also lead to birth defects in unborn babies. So, it's important for older individuals and pregnant women to be cautious about how much vitamin A they consume. Many supplements, like multivitamins and fish oils, contain vitamin A. If you take these supplements, be mindful not to regularly eat liver or pâté, as they also have high vitamin A content.

What happens with vitamin A deficiency?
Your body stores extra vitamin A for later use, so the risk of running low is lower compared to the risk of having too much. However, when there's a severe shortage of vitamin A, it can lead to blindness.

The amount of retinol equivalents (RE) per microgram (g) of a food's total vitamin A content is the standard unit of measurement.
Adults aged 19 to 64 require the following dosage of vitamin A:
700 g for guys each day
600 g per day for females.

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1, commonly known as Thiamine, is a B vitamin that your body requires for growth, development, and cellular function, along with the conversion of food into energy. Thiamine, like the other B vitamins, is water-soluble. Because it dissolves in water and is not kept in your body, you must consume it on a regular basis. Actually, your body can only store around 20 days' worth of thiamine at a time. Fortunately, thiamine may be found naturally in a variety of foods and is added to others through fortification. It's also typically found in multivitamins, as a standalone supplement, or as part of a vitamin B complex.

The basic operation of our cells and the metabolism of nutrients for energy both depend on vitamin B1, or thiamin. The brain is one of your body's most metabolically active organs, therefore it requires thiamin support to avoid inadequacies that could cause neurological issues in the future.

Good sources include:
- peas
- some fresh fruits (such as bananas and oranges)
- nuts
- wholegrain breads
- some fortified breakfast cereals
- liver

There isn't enough data to tell what the effects of taking high amounts of thiamin tablets every day might be.

Thiamine deficiency can occur in as little as three weeks if you don't receive enough of it and impact your heart, brain system, and immune system. True thiamine shortage is uncommon in healthy people who have ample access to thiamine-rich diets. In highly industrialised countries, the majority of individuals who have real thiamine deficiency have additional health issues or procedures that require appropriate access to thiamine-rich foods. A thiamin deficit can result in a variety of issues in the brain and heart that need a continual source of energy since thiamin is involved in several fundamental cell activities and the breakdown of foods for energy. A thiamin deficit might result in aberrant cardiac motor activity. The condition known as congestive heart failure makes it difficult for the heart to effectively pump blood to the body's other organs. Thiamine insufficiency affects persons with congestive heart failure at a rate of 21% to 98%.(8) It is more common in older people, people who eat poorly, and people who take high dosages of diuretics. According to several clinical studies, thiamin supplementation can dramatically enhance heart function in persons with heart failure when compared to a placebo. Thiamin deficiency has been linked to neurological issues like cognitive deterioration, according to research. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, a type of thiamin deficiency, causes mental state changes resembling those of Alzheimer's disease. According to animal research, thiamin deficiency may result in oxidative stress, nerve cell death, memory loss, plaque development, and impaired glucose metabolism—all of which are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Since there hasn't been much research done on humans, it's unclear if thiamin supplementation can treat this problem.

It helps the body break down and release energy from food and keep the nervous system healthy.
- 1 mg/day for men
- 0.8 mg/day for women

Vitamin B5

Food sources do not contain pantothenic acid at hazardous levels. Large daily doses of 10 grammes have been observed to cause moderate diarrhoea or stomach distress.This is uncommon, and there is no known pantothenic acid Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

Because pantothenic acid aids in fat breakdown, it has been investigated for its possible role in lowering cholesterol levels in persons with dyslipidemia. This is a condition in which the blood has an unusually high proportion of fat or lipids (e.g., LDL "bad" cholesterol, triglycerides) while having low levels of HDL "good" cholesterol. Low CoA levels may inhibit fat breakdown and removal in the blood.

It has also been hypothesised that pantothenic acid has an antioxidant action that lowers low-grade inflammation in the early stages of heart disease. However, research in this area is relatively limited, and it is uncertain if pantothenic acid supplements can lower blood lipids independently of (or supplement the cholesterol-lowering benefits of) a heart-healthy diet.

Vitamin A is included in: -Cheese
Eggs
Oily fish
Fortified low-fat spreads
Milk and yoghurt
Liver and liver products such as liver pâté - Because this is a particularly strong source of vitamin A, eating it more than once a week may put you at danger of having too much vitamin A (if you're pregnant, avoid eating liver or liver derivatives).
You can also receive vitamin A by eating foods high in beta-carotene, which your body can convert into retinol. The colour of yellow and orange fruits and vegetables is due to beta-carotene.The following foods are high in beta-carotene:
Spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes, and red peppers are examples of yellow, red, and green (leafy) vegetables.
Mango, papaya, and apricots are examples of yellow fruits.

What happens with vitamin A toxicity?
If you consistently consume over 1,500 micrograms per day for many years, it could harm your bones as you get older. Excessive vitamin A intake can also lead to birth defects in unborn babies. So, it's important for older individuals and pregnant women to be cautious about how much vitamin A they consume. Many supplements, like multivitamins and fish oils, contain vitamin A. If you take these supplements, be mindful not to regularly eat liver or pâté, as they also have high vitamin A content.

What happens with vitamin A deficiency?
Your body stores extra vitamin A for later use, so the risk of running low is lower compared to the risk of having too much. However, when there's a severe shortage of vitamin A, it can lead to blindness.

The amount of retinol equivalents (RE) per microgram (g) of a food's total vitamin A content is the standard unit of measurement.
Adults aged 19 to 64 require the following dosage of vitamin A:
700 g for guys each day
600 g per day for females.

Vitamin B6

Taking 200mg or more of vitamin B6 [LK2] per day might cause peripheral neuropathy, a loss of feeling in the arms and legs. However, once you stop using the pills, this typically improves.
Nevertheless, in a rare cases where people have taken excessive levels of vitamin B6, especially over a long period of time, the impact can be permanent. The effect of taking vitamin B6 at amounts ranging from 10 to 200 mg is unknown. As a result, there is insufficient evidence to say how long these doses might be used safely.

Vitamin B6 is essential for mood modulation. This is due in part to the fact that this vitamin is required for the production of neurotransmitters that regulate emotions, such as serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Vitamin B6 may also help to lower blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine, which has been related to depression and other psychiatric problems.

Vitamin B6 has been used to alleviate premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms such as anxiety, depression, and irritability. Researchers believe that B6 helps with emotional symptoms associated with PMS because of its role in the production of neurotransmitters that govern mood. A three-month research of more than 60 premenopausal women discovered that taking 50 mg of vitamin B6 daily reduced PMS symptoms of melancholy, irritability, and exhaustion by 69%. Another small study discovered that taking 50 mg of vitamin B6 and 200 mg of magnesium per day for one menstrual cycle dramatically reduced PMS symptoms such as mood swings, irritation, and anxiety.

Vitamin B6 may help to keep arteries clear and reduce the risk of heart disease. According to research, those with low vitamin B6 levels in their blood had nearly twice the chance of developing heart disease as those with higher B6 levels.

Getting enough vitamin B6 may reduce your chances of acquiring certain cancers. The reason why B6 may help prevent cancer is unknown, but researchers believe it has something to do with its ability to fight inflammation, which may contribute to cancer and other chronic diseases.

Vitamin B6 is present in many different foods, including:
- pork
- poultry (chicken or turkey)
- some fish
- peanuts
- beans made from soya
- wheatgerm
- oats
- bananas
- milk
- some breakfast cereals fortified

Taking 200mg or more of vitamin B6 [LK2] per day might cause peripheral neuropathy, a loss of feeling in the arms and legs. However, once you stop using the pills, this typically improves.

Nevertheless, in a rare cases where people have taken excessive levels of vitamin B6, especially over a long period of time, the impact can be permanent. The effect of taking vitamin B6 at amounts ranging from 10 to 200 mg is unknown. As a result, there is insufficient evidence to say how long these doses might be used safely.

The majority of people consume adequate B6 in their diets, but you are more likely to be B6 deficient if you are lacking in other B complex vitamins like folate and B12.

People with liver, kidney, digestive, or autoimmune illnesses, smokers, obese people, alcoholics, and pregnant women are more likely to suffer from vitamin B6 insufficiency.

- 1.4 mg/day for men
- 1.2 mg/day for women
The bacteria in the gut microbiome are able to produce vitamin B6.

Vitamin B12

In addition to helping to create DNA, the genetic material in all of your cells, vitamin B12 is a supplement that keeps your body's blood and nerve cells healthy. Megaloblastic anaemia, a blood disorder that causes people to feel exhausted and weak, can be avoided with vitamin B12.

Red blood cell production in your body is greatly aided by vitamin B12.: Red blood cell production is reduced and cannot properly develop when vitamin B12 levels are low. When vitamin B12 is deficient, red blood cells, which are normally tiny and rounded, grow to be larger and often oval. Megaloblastic anaemia is brought on by the red blood cells' bigger and atypical shape, which prevents them from entering the bloodstream from the bone marrow at the proper rate. Your body doesn't produce enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to your important organs when you have anaemia. Weakness and weariness are possible consequences of this.

For a pregnancy to be healthy, vitamin B12 levels must be adequate.
According to studies, a fetus's brain and nervous system need enough B12 from the mother to develop normally. Early in a pregnancy, vitamin B12 deficiency can raise the chance of birth abnormalities such neural tube disorders. Additionally, a mother's lack of vitamin B12 may result in an early birth or miscarriage.

Your mood might be enhanced by vitamin B12.

There is still much to learn about how vitamin B12 affects mood. The neurotransmitter serotonin, which controls mood, is synthesised and metabolised with the help of this vitamin .

So, a vitamin B12 deficiency may result in less serotonin being produced, which might result in depression.

In an older trial, individuals with depression and vitamin B12 levels that were below normal were treated with both antidepressants and vitamin B12 and were more likely to experience reduced depressed symptoms than those who got only antidepressants

Homocysteine, an amino acid, has been connected to a higher risk of heart disease.
Your homocysteine levels rise if you have a serious vitamin B12 deficiency .
According to studies, vitamin B12 helps lower homocysteine levels, which may lower your risk of developing heart disease .
However, there isn't any current scientific proof that taking vitamin B12 supplements can actually lower your risk of developing heart disease.

A sufficient intake of vitamin B12 is required to support strong hair, skin, and nails because this vitamin is essential for cell development.

Various dermatologic symptoms, such as hyperpigmentation, nail discoloration, hair changes, vitiligo (the loss of skin colour in regions), and angular stomatitis (inflamed and cracked mouth corners), can actually be brought on by low vitamin B12 levels.

Good sources include:
- meat
- fish
- milk
- cheese
- eggs
- some fortified breakfast cereals

B12 is a water-soluble vitamin, thus even high doses are typically regarded as safe. Due to B12's low degree of toxicity, there is no Tolerable Upper Intake degree (UL).

A lack of vitamin B12 might happen in one of two ways. Either you don't get enough of it in your diet, or your body can't properly absorb it from the food you eat.
Those who are susceptible to a lack of vitamin B12 include:
- older adults
- those who suffer from gastrointestinal conditions like Crohn's disease or celiac disease
- people who have undergone gastrointestinal procedures like colon resection or bariatric surgery
- Vegans who adhere to a rigorous diet
- individuals who take metformin to manage their blood sugar
- those who take proton pump inhibitors for persistent heartburn

Adults (ages 19 to 64) require around 1.5 micrograms of vitamin B12 each day. You should be able to receive enough vitamin B12 from your diet if you eat meat, fish, or dairy products. However, because vitamin B12 is not naturally available in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains, vegans may not get enough of it.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an essential vitamin, which means your body cannot make it. Nonetheless, it serves numerous functions and has been related to numerous health advantages. It is water soluble and can be found in a variety of fruits and vegetables.

Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that can help to boost your body's natural defences. According to research, increasing your vitamin C intake can boost your blood antioxidant levels by up to 30%. This aids the body's natural defences in combating inflammation.

High blood sugar may be alleviated. High blood pressure puts you at risk of developing heart disease, which is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Vitamin C has been found in studies to help reduce blood pressure in both with and without high blood pressure. An animal study discovered that taking a vitamin C pill relaxed the blood arteries that convey blood from the heart, lowering blood pressure levels. Furthermore, a review of 29 human trials discovered that taking a vitamin C supplement reduced systolic blood pressure (the upper value) by 3.8 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (the lower value) by 1.5 mmHg in healthy individuals on average.
Vitamin C supplements lowered systolic blood pressure by 4.9 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure by 1.7 mmHg in persons with high blood pressure on average.

Vitamin C supplements can assist enhance iron absorption from food. Vitamin C aids in the conversion of iron that is poorly absorbed, such as plant-based iron sources, into a more absorbable form.

One of the most common reasons people take vitamin C supplements is to improve their immunity, as vitamin C is involved in many different aspects of the immune system. It promotes the formation of white blood cells called lymphocytes and phagocytes, which assist the body fight illness.

Vitamin C is an important component of the skin's defence mechanism. It is actively carried to the skin, where it can function as an antioxidant and aid in the strengthening of the skin's defences.

A wide range of fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C.

Good sources include:
- citrus fruit, such as oranges and orange juice
- peppers
- strawberries
- blackcurrants
- broccoli
- brussels sprouts
- potatoes

Taking excessive doses of vitamin C (greater than 1,000mg per day) might result in: stomach ache, diarrhoea and /or flatulence. Once you stop using vitamin C pills, these symptoms should go away.

Deficit is relatively uncommon in modern nations because fresh produce is readily available and vitamin C is added to some diets and supplements, but it still affects about 7% of adults in the US.
Poor food, alcoholism, anorexia, severe mental illness, smoking, dialysis, and poor lifestyle choices are the most typical risk factors for vitamin C insufficiency. Most common signs and symptoms of vitamin c deficiency are, rough and bumpy skin, bright red hair follicles, easy bruising, slowly healing wounds and weak bones.

Adults between the ages of 19 and 64 require 40mg of vitamin C each day.

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